AmericanFlagX.java


Below is the syntax highlighted version of AmericanFlagX.java from §5.1 String Sorts.


/******************************************************************************
 *  Compilation:  javac AmericanFlagX.java
 *  Execution:    java AmericanFlagX < input.txt
 *  Dependencies: StdIn.java StdOut.java Stack.java
 *  Data files:   https://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix/words3.txt
 *                https://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix/shells.txt
 *
 *  Sort an array of strings or integers in-place using American Flag sort.
 *
 *  % java AmericanFlagX < shells.txt 
 *  are
 *  by
 *  sea
 *  seashells
 *  seashells
 *  sells
 *  sells
 *  she
 *  she
 *  shells
 *  shore
 *  surely
 *  the
 *  the
 *
 ******************************************************************************/

/**
 *  The {@code AmericanFlagX} class provides static methods for sorting an
 *  array of extended ASCII strings or integers in-place using 
 *  American Flag sort. This implementation is non-recursive and uses only 
 *  one auxiliary array.
 *  <p>
 *  For additional documentation,
 *  see <a href="https://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix">Section 5.1</a> of
 *  <i>Algorithms, 4th Edition</i> by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne
 *  and <a href = "http://static.usenix.org/publications/compsystems/1993/win_mcilroy.pdf">
 *  Engineering Radix Sort</a> by McIlroy and Bostic.
 *  For a version that uses two auxilary arrays, see {@link AmericanFlag}.
 *
 *  @author Ivan Pesin
 */

public class AmericanFlagX {
    private static final int R      = 256;   // extend ASCII alphabet size
    private static final int CUTOFF =  15;   // cutoff to insertion sort

    // do not instantiate
    private AmericanFlagX() { } 

    // return dth character of s, -1 if d = length of string
    private static int charAt(String s, int d) {
        assert d >= 0 && d <= s.length();
        if (d == s.length()) return -1;
        return s.charAt(d);
    }

    /**
     * Rearranges the array of extended ASCII strings in ascending order.
     * This is an unstable in-place sorting algorithm.
     *
     * @param a the array to be sorted
     */
    public static void sort(String[] a) {
        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
    }

    // sort from a[lo] to a[hi], starting at the dth character
    public static void sort(String[] a, int lo, int hi) {
        // one-time allocation of data structures
        Stack<Integer> st = new Stack<Integer>();
        int[] count = new int[R+1];
        int d = 0; // character index to sort by

        st.push(lo);
        st.push(hi);
        st.push(d);
        
        while (!st.isEmpty()) {
            d = st.pop();
            hi = st.pop();
            lo = st.pop();

            if (hi <= lo + CUTOFF) {
                insertion(a, lo, hi, d);
                continue;
            }

            // compute frequency counts
            for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) {
                int c = charAt(a[i], d) + 1; // account for -1 representing end-of-string
                count[c]++;
            }

            // accumulate counts relative to a[0], so that 
            // count[c] is the number of keys <= c
            count[0] += lo;
            for (int c = 0; c < R; c++) {
                count[c+1] += count[c];
            
                if (c > 0 && count[c+1]-1 > count[c]) { 
                    // add subproblem for character c (excludes sentinel c == 0)
                    st.push(count[c]);
                    st.push(count[c+1]-1);
                    st.push(d+1); 
                }
            }

            // permute data in place
            // for details and proof see Knuth Theorem 5.1.2B and ch 5.2 excercise 13.
            for (int r = hi; r >= lo; r--) {

                // locate element that must be shifted right of r
                int c = charAt(a[r], d) + 1;
                while (r >= lo && count[c]-1 <= r) {
                    if (count[c]-1 == r) count[c]--;
                    r--;
                    if (r >= lo) c = charAt(a[r], d) + 1;
                }

                // if r < lo the subarray is sorted.
                if (r < lo) break;
            
                // permute a[r] until correct element is in place
                while (--count[c] != r) {
                    exch(a, r, count[c]);
                    c = charAt(a[r], d) + 1;
                }
            }
          
            // clear count[] array
            for (int c = 0; c < R+1; c++)
                count[c] = 0;
        }
    }
    
    // insertion sort a[lo..hi], starting at dth character
    private static void insertion(String[] a, int lo, int hi, int d) {
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++)
            for (int j = i; j > lo && less(a[j], a[j-1], d); j--)
                exch(a, j, j-1);
    }

    // exchange a[i] and a[j]
    private static void exch(String[] a, int i, int j) {
        String temp = a[i];
        a[i] = a[j];
        a[j] = temp;
    }

    // is v less than w, starting at character d
    private static boolean less(String v, String w, int d) {
        // assert v.substring(0, d).equals(w.substring(0, d));
        for (int i = d; i <  Math.min(v.length(), w.length()); i++) {
            if (v.charAt(i) < w.charAt(i)) return true;
            if (v.charAt(i) > w.charAt(i)) return false;
        }
        return v.length() < w.length();
    }
        
    /**
     * Reads in a sequence of extended ASCII strings or non-negative ints from standard input;
     * American flag sorts them;
     * and prints them to standard output in ascending order.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {      
        String[] a = StdIn.readAllStrings();
        sort(a);
        // print results
        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++)
            StdOut.println(a[i]);
    }
}


Copyright © 2000–2017, Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
Last updated: Tue May 22 09:25:28 EDT 2018.