FenwickTree.java


Below is the syntax highlighted version of FenwickTree.java.


/******************************************************************************
 *  Compilation:  javac FenwickTree.java
 *  Execution:    java FenwickTree
 *
 *  A Fenwick tree.
 *
 ******************************************************************************/

package edu.princeton.cs.algs4;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;

/**
 * Created by ricardodpsx@gmail.com on 4/01/15.
 * <p>
 * In {@code Fenwick Tree} structure We arrange the array in an smart way to perform efficient <em>range queries and updates</em>.
 * The key point is this: In a fenwick array, each position "responsible" for storing cumulative data of N previous positions (N could be 1)
 * For example:
 * array[40] stores: array[40] + array[39] ... + array[32] (8 positions)
 * array[32] stores: array[32] + array[31] ... + array[1]  (32 positions)
 * <p>
 * <strong>But, how do you know how much positions a given index is "responsible" for?</strong>
 * <p>
 * To know the number of items that a given array position 'ind' is responsible for
 * We should extract from 'ind' the portion up to the first significant one of the binary representation of 'ind'
 * for example, given ind == 40 (101000 in binary), according to Fenwick algorithm
 * what We want is to extract 1000(8 in decimal).
 * <p>
 * This means that array[40] has cumulative information of 8 array items.
 * But We still need to know the cumulative data bellow array[40 - 8 = 32]
 * 32 is  100000 in binnary, and the portion up to the least significant one is 32 itself!
 * So array[32] has information of 32 items, and We are done!
 * <p>
 * So cummulative data of array[1...40] = array[40] + array[32]
 * Because 40 has information of items from 40 to 32, and 32 has information of items from 32 to  1
 * <p>
 * Memory usage:  O(n)
 *
 * @author Ricardo Pacheco 
 */
public class FenwickTree {

    int[] array; // 1-indexed array, In this array We save cumulative information to perform efficient range queries and updates

    public FenwickTree(int size) {
        array = new int[size + 1];
    }

    /**
     * Range Sum query from 1 to ind
     * ind is 1-indexed
     * <p>
     * Time-Complexity:    O(log(n))
     *
     * @param  ind index
     * @return sum
     */
    public int rsq(int ind) {
        assert ind > 0;
        int sum = 0;
        while (ind > 0) {
            sum += array[ind];
            //Extracting the portion up to the first significant one of the binary representation of 'ind' and decrementing ind by that number
            ind -= ind & (-ind);
        }

        return sum;
    }

    /**
     * Range Sum Query from a to b.
     * Search for the sum from array index from a to b
     * a and b are 1-indexed
     * <p>
     * Time-Complexity:    O(log(n))
     *
     * @param  a left index
     * @param  b right index
     * @return sum
     */
    public int rsq(int a, int b) {
        assert b >= a && a > 0 && b > 0;

        return rsq(b) - rsq(a - 1);
    }

    /**
     * Update the array at ind and all the affected regions above ind.
     * ind is 1-indexed
     * <p>
     * Time-Complexity:    O(log(n))
     *
     * @param  ind   index
     * @param  value value
     */
    public void update(int ind, int value) {
        assert ind > 0;
        while (ind < array.length) {
            array[ind] += value;
            //Extracting the portion up to the first significant one of the binary representation of 'ind' and incrementing ind by that number
            ind += ind & (-ind);
        }
    }

    public int size() {
        return array.length - 1;
    }


    /**
     * Read the following commands:
     * init n     Initializes the array of size n all zeroes
     * set a b c    Initializes the array  with [a, b, c ...]
     * rsq a b      Range Sum Query for the range [a,b]
     * up  i v      Update the i position of the array with value v.
     * exit
     * <p>
     * The array is 1-indexed
     * Example:
     * set 1 2 3 4 5 6
     * rsq 1 3
     * Sum from 1 to 3 = 6
     * rmq 1 3
     * Min from 1 to 3 = 1
     * input up 1 3
     * [3,2,3,4,5,6]
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {


        FenwickTree ft = null;

        String cmd = "cmp";
        while (true) {
            String[] line = StdIn.readLine().split(" ");

            if (line[0].equals("exit")) break;

            int arg1 = 0, arg2 = 0;

            if (line.length > 1) {
                arg1 = Integer.parseInt(line[1]);
            }
            if (line.length > 2) {
                arg2 = Integer.parseInt(line[2]);
            }

            if ((!line[0].equals("set") && !line[0].equals("init")) && ft == null) {
                StdOut.println("FenwickTree not initialized");
                continue;
            }

            if (line[0].equals("init")) {
                ft = new FenwickTree(arg1);
                for (int i = 1; i <= ft.size(); i++) {
                    StdOut.print(ft.rsq(i, i) + " ");
                }
                StdOut.println();
            }
            else if (line[0].equals("set")) {
                ft = new FenwickTree(line.length - 1);
                for (int i = 1; i <= line.length - 1; i++) {
                    ft.update(i, Integer.parseInt(line[i]));
                }
            }

            else if (line[0].equals("up")) {
                ft.update(arg1, arg2);
                for (int i = 1; i <= ft.size(); i++) {
                    StdOut.print(ft.rsq(i, i) + " ");
                }
                StdOut.println();
            }
            else if (line[0].equals("rsq")) {
                StdOut.printf("Sum from %d to %d = %d%n", arg1, arg2, ft.rsq(arg1, arg2));
            }
            else {
                StdOut.println("Invalid command");
            }

        }


        StdOut.close();
    }


}

/******************************************************************************
 *  Copyright 2002-2016, Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
 *
 *  This file is part of algs4.jar, which accompanies the textbook
 *
 *      Algorithms, 4th edition by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne,
 *      Addison-Wesley Professional, 2011, ISBN 0-321-57351-X.
 *      http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu
 *
 *
 *  algs4.jar is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *  algs4.jar is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with algs4.jar.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses.
 ******************************************************************************/


Last updated: Sun Apr 16 20:48:46 EDT 2017.