MSD.java


Below is the syntax highlighted version of MSD.java from §5.1 String Sorts.


/******************************************************************************
 *  Compilation: javac MSD.java
 *  Execution:   java MSD < input.txt
 *  Dependencies: StdIn.java StdOut.java 
 *  Data files:   http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix/words3.txt
 *                http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix/shells.txt
 *
 *  Sort an array of strings or integers using MSD radix sort.
 *
 *  % java MSD < shells.txt 
 *  are
 *  by
 *  sea
 *  seashells
 *  seashells
 *  sells
 *  sells
 *  she
 *  she
 *  shells
 *  shore
 *  surely
 *  the
 *  the
 *
 ******************************************************************************/

/**
 *  The {@code MSD} class provides static methods for sorting an
 *  array of extended ASCII strings or integers using MSD radix sort.
 *  <p>
 *  For additional documentation,
 *  see <a href="http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/51radix">Section 5.1</a> of
 *  <i>Algorithms, 4th Edition</i> by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
 *
 *  @author Robert Sedgewick
 *  @author Kevin Wayne
 */
public class MSD {
    private static final int BITS_PER_BYTE =   8;
    private static final int BITS_PER_INT  =  32;   // each Java int is 32 bits 
    private static final int R             = 256;   // extended ASCII alphabet size
    private static final int CUTOFF        =  15;   // cutoff to insertion sort

    // do not instantiate
    private MSD() { } 

   /**
     * Rearranges the array of extended ASCII strings in ascending order.
     *
     * @param a the array to be sorted
     */
    public static void sort(String[] a) {
        int n = a.length;
        String[] aux = new String[n];
        sort(a, 0, n-1, 0, aux);
    }

    // return dth character of s, -1 if d = length of string
    private static int charAt(String s, int d) {
        assert d >= 0 && d <= s.length();
        if (d == s.length()) return -1;
        return s.charAt(d);
    }

    // sort from a[lo] to a[hi], starting at the dth character
    private static void sort(String[] a, int lo, int hi, int d, String[] aux) {

        // cutoff to insertion sort for small subarrays
        if (hi <= lo + CUTOFF) {
            insertion(a, lo, hi, d);
            return;
        }

        // compute frequency counts
        int[] count = new int[R+2];
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) {
            int c = charAt(a[i], d);
            count[c+2]++;
        }

        // transform counts to indicies
        for (int r = 0; r < R+1; r++)
            count[r+1] += count[r];

        // distribute
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) {
            int c = charAt(a[i], d);
            aux[count[c+1]++] = a[i];
        }

        // copy back
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) 
            a[i] = aux[i - lo];


        // recursively sort for each character (excludes sentinel -1)
        for (int r = 0; r < R; r++)
            sort(a, lo + count[r], lo + count[r+1] - 1, d+1, aux);
    }


    // insertion sort a[lo..hi], starting at dth character
    private static void insertion(String[] a, int lo, int hi, int d) {
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++)
            for (int j = i; j > lo && less(a[j], a[j-1], d); j--)
                exch(a, j, j-1);
    }

    // exchange a[i] and a[j]
    private static void exch(String[] a, int i, int j) {
        String temp = a[i];
        a[i] = a[j];
        a[j] = temp;
    }

    // is v less than w, starting at character d
    private static boolean less(String v, String w, int d) {
        // assert v.substring(0, d).equals(w.substring(0, d));
        for (int i = d; i < Math.min(v.length(), w.length()); i++) {
            if (v.charAt(i) < w.charAt(i)) return true;
            if (v.charAt(i) > w.charAt(i)) return false;
        }
        return v.length() < w.length();
    }


   /**
     * Rearranges the array of 32-bit integers in ascending order.
     * Currently assumes that the integers are nonnegative.
     *
     * @param a the array to be sorted
     */
    public static void sort(int[] a) {
        int n = a.length;
        int[] aux = new int[n];
        sort(a, 0, n-1, 0, aux);
    }

    // MSD sort from a[lo] to a[hi], starting at the dth byte
    private static void sort(int[] a, int lo, int hi, int d, int[] aux) {

        // cutoff to insertion sort for small subarrays
        if (hi <= lo + CUTOFF) {
            insertion(a, lo, hi, d);
            return;
        }

        // compute frequency counts (need R = 256)
        int[] count = new int[R+1];
        int mask = R - 1;   // 0xFF;
        int shift = BITS_PER_INT - BITS_PER_BYTE*d - BITS_PER_BYTE;
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) {
            int c = (a[i] >> shift) & mask;
            count[c + 1]++;
        }

        // transform counts to indicies
        for (int r = 0; r < R; r++)
            count[r+1] += count[r];

/************* BUGGGY CODE.
        // for most significant byte, 0x80-0xFF comes before 0x00-0x7F
        if (d == 0) {
            int shift1 = count[R] - count[R/2];
            int shift2 = count[R/2];
            for (int r = 0; r < R/2; r++)
                count[r] += shift1;
            for (int r = R/2; r < R; r++)
                count[r] -= shift2;
        }
************************************/
        // distribute
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) {
            int c = (a[i] >> shift) & mask;
            aux[count[c]++] = a[i];
        }

        // copy back
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++) 
            a[i] = aux[i - lo];

        // no more bits
        if (d == 4) return;

        // recursively sort for each character
        if (count[0] > 0)
            sort(a, lo, lo + count[0] - 1, d+1, aux);
        for (int r = 0; r < R; r++)
            if (count[r+1] > count[r])
                sort(a, lo + count[r], lo + count[r+1] - 1, d+1, aux);
    }

    // TODO: insertion sort a[lo..hi], starting at dth character
    private static void insertion(int[] a, int lo, int hi, int d) {
        for (int i = lo; i <= hi; i++)
            for (int j = i; j > lo && a[j] < a[j-1]; j--)
                exch(a, j, j-1);
    }

    // exchange a[i] and a[j]
    private static void exch(int[] a, int i, int j) {
        int temp = a[i];
        a[i] = a[j];
        a[j] = temp;
    }


    /**
     * Reads in a sequence of extended ASCII strings from standard input;
     * MSD radix sorts them;
     * and prints them to standard output in ascending order.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String[] a = StdIn.readAllStrings();
        int n = a.length;
        sort(a);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
            StdOut.println(a[i]);
    }
}


Copyright © 2000–2016, Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
Last updated: Wed Nov 2 17:08:32 EDT 2016.