BST.java


Below is the syntax highlighted version of BST.java from §3.2 Binary Search Trees.


/******************************************************************************
 *  Compilation:  javac BST.java
 *  Execution:    java BST
 *  Dependencies: StdIn.java StdOut.java Queue.java
 *  Data files:   http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/32bst/tinyST.txt  
 *
 *  A symbol table implemented with a binary search tree.
 * 
 *  % more tinyST.txt
 *  S E A R C H E X A M P L E
 *  
 *  % java BST < tinyST.txt
 *  A 8
 *  C 4
 *  E 12
 *  H 5
 *  L 11
 *  M 9
 *  P 10
 *  R 3
 *  S 0
 *  X 7
 *
 ******************************************************************************/

import java.util.NoSuchElementException;

/**
 *  The {@code BST} class represents an ordered symbol table of generic
 *  key-value pairs.
 *  It supports the usual <em>put</em>, <em>get</em>, <em>contains</em>,
 *  <em>delete</em>, <em>size</em>, and <em>is-empty</em> methods.
 *  It also provides ordered methods for finding the <em>minimum</em>,
 *  <em>maximum</em>, <em>floor</em>, <em>select</em>, <em>ceiling</em>.
 *  It also provides a <em>keys</em> method for iterating over all of the keys.
 *  A symbol table implements the <em>associative array</em> abstraction:
 *  when associating a value with a key that is already in the symbol table,
 *  the convention is to replace the old value with the new value.
 *  Unlike {@link java.util.Map}, this class uses the convention that
 *  values cannot be {@code null}—setting the
 *  value associated with a key to {@code null} is equivalent to deleting the key
 *  from the symbol table.
 *  <p>
 *  This implementation uses an (unbalanced) binary search tree. It requires that
 *  the key type implements the {@code Comparable} interface and calls the
 *  {@code compareTo()} and method to compare two keys. It does not call either
 *  {@code equals()} or {@code hashCode()}.
 *  The <em>put</em>, <em>contains</em>, <em>remove</em>, <em>minimum</em>,
 *  <em>maximum</em>, <em>ceiling</em>, <em>floor</em>, <em>select</em>, and
 *  <em>rank</em>  operations each take
 *  linear time in the worst case, if the tree becomes unbalanced.
 *  The <em>size</em>, and <em>is-empty</em> operations take constant time.
 *  Construction takes constant time.
 *  <p>
 *  For additional documentation, see <a href="http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/32bst">Section 3.2</a> of
 *  <i>Algorithms, 4th Edition</i> by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
 *  For other implementations, see {@link ST}, {@link BinarySearchST},
 *  {@link SequentialSearchST}, {@link RedBlackBST},
 *  {@link SeparateChainingHashST}, and {@link LinearProbingHashST},
 *
 *  @author Robert Sedgewick
 *  @author Kevin Wayne
 */
public class BST<Key extends Comparable<Key>, Value> {
    private Node root;             // root of BST

    private class Node {
        private Key key;           // sorted by key
        private Value val;         // associated data
        private Node left, right;  // left and right subtrees
        private int size;          // number of nodes in subtree

        public Node(Key key, Value val, int size) {
            this.key = key;
            this.val = val;
            this.size = size;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initializes an empty symbol table.
     */
    public BST() {
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if this symbol table is empty.
     * @return {@code true} if this symbol table is empty; {@code false} otherwise
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size() == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of key-value pairs in this symbol table.
     * @return the number of key-value pairs in this symbol table
     */
    public int size() {
        return size(root);
    }

    // return number of key-value pairs in BST rooted at x
    private int size(Node x) {
        if (x == null) return 0;
        else return x.size;
    }

    /**
     * Does this symbol table contain the given key?
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @return {@code true} if this symbol table contains {@code key} and
     *         {@code false} otherwise
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public boolean contains(Key key) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("argument to contains() is null");
        return get(key) != null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the value associated with the given key.
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @return the value associated with the given key if the key is in the symbol table
     *         and {@code null} if the key is not in the symbol table
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public Value get(Key key) {
        return get(root, key);
    }

    private Value get(Node x, Key key) {
        if (x == null) return null;
        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key);
        if      (cmp < 0) return get(x.left, key);
        else if (cmp > 0) return get(x.right, key);
        else              return x.val;
    }

    /**
     * Inserts the specified key-value pair into the symbol table, overwriting the old 
     * value with the new value if the symbol table already contains the specified key.
     * Deletes the specified key (and its associated value) from this symbol table
     * if the specified value is {@code null}.
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @param  val the value
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public void put(Key key, Value val) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("first argument to put() is null");
        if (val == null) {
            delete(key);
            return;
        }
        root = put(root, key, val);
        assert check();
    }

    private Node put(Node x, Key key, Value val) {
        if (x == null) return new Node(key, val, 1);
        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key);
        if      (cmp < 0) x.left  = put(x.left,  key, val);
        else if (cmp > 0) x.right = put(x.right, key, val);
        else              x.val   = val;
        x.size = 1 + size(x.left) + size(x.right);
        return x;
    }


    /**
     * Removes the smallest key and associated value from the symbol table.
     *
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if the symbol table is empty
     */
    public void deleteMin() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Symbol table underflow");
        root = deleteMin(root);
        assert check();
    }

    private Node deleteMin(Node x) {
        if (x.left == null) return x.right;
        x.left = deleteMin(x.left);
        x.size = size(x.left) + size(x.right) + 1;
        return x;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the largest key and associated value from the symbol table.
     *
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if the symbol table is empty
     */
    public void deleteMax() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Symbol table underflow");
        root = deleteMax(root);
        assert check();
    }

    private Node deleteMax(Node x) {
        if (x.right == null) return x.left;
        x.right = deleteMax(x.right);
        x.size = size(x.left) + size(x.right) + 1;
        return x;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the specified key and its associated value from this symbol table     
     * (if the key is in this symbol table).    
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public void delete(Key key) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("argument to delete() is null");
        root = delete(root, key);
        assert check();
    }

    private Node delete(Node x, Key key) {
        if (x == null) return null;

        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key);
        if      (cmp < 0) x.left  = delete(x.left,  key);
        else if (cmp > 0) x.right = delete(x.right, key);
        else { 
            if (x.right == null) return x.left;
            if (x.left  == null) return x.right;
            Node t = x;
            x = min(t.right);
            x.right = deleteMin(t.right);
            x.left = t.left;
        } 
        x.size = size(x.left) + size(x.right) + 1;
        return x;
    } 


    /**
     * Returns the smallest key in the symbol table.
     *
     * @return the smallest key in the symbol table
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if the symbol table is empty
     */
    public Key min() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("called min() with empty symbol table");
        return min(root).key;
    } 

    private Node min(Node x) { 
        if (x.left == null) return x; 
        else                return min(x.left); 
    } 

    /**
     * Returns the largest key in the symbol table.
     *
     * @return the largest key in the symbol table
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if the symbol table is empty
     */
    public Key max() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("called max() with empty symbol table");
        return max(root).key;
    } 

    private Node max(Node x) {
        if (x.right == null) return x; 
        else                 return max(x.right); 
    } 

    /**
     * Returns the largest key in the symbol table less than or equal to {@code key}.
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @return the largest key in the symbol table less than or equal to {@code key}
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if there is no such key
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public Key floor(Key key) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("argument to floor() is null");
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("called floor() with empty symbol table");
        Node x = floor(root, key);
        if (x == null) return null;
        else return x.key;
    } 

    private Node floor(Node x, Key key) {
        if (x == null) return null;
        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key);
        if (cmp == 0) return x;
        if (cmp <  0) return floor(x.left, key);
        Node t = floor(x.right, key); 
        if (t != null) return t;
        else return x; 
    } 

    /**
     * Returns the smallest key in the symbol table greater than or equal to {@code key}.
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @return the smallest key in the symbol table greater than or equal to {@code key}
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if there is no such key
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public Key ceiling(Key key) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("argument to ceiling() is null");
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("called ceiling() with empty symbol table");
        Node x = ceiling(root, key);
        if (x == null) return null;
        else return x.key;
    }

    private Node ceiling(Node x, Key key) {
        if (x == null) return null;
        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key);
        if (cmp == 0) return x;
        if (cmp < 0) { 
            Node t = ceiling(x.left, key); 
            if (t != null) return t;
            else return x; 
        } 
        return ceiling(x.right, key); 
    } 

    /**
     * Return the kth smallest key in the symbol table.
     *
     * @param  k the order statistic
     * @return the kth smallest key in the symbol table
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException unless {@code k} is between 0 and
     *        <em>N</em> &minus; 1
     */
    public Key select(int k) {
        if (k < 0 || k >= size()) throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        Node x = select(root, k);
        return x.key;
    }

    // Return key of rank k. 
    private Node select(Node x, int k) {
        if (x == null) return null; 
        int t = size(x.left); 
        if      (t > k) return select(x.left,  k); 
        else if (t < k) return select(x.right, k-t-1); 
        else            return x; 
    } 

    /**
     * Return the number of keys in the symbol table strictly less than {@code key}.
     *
     * @param  key the key
     * @return the number of keys in the symbol table strictly less than {@code key}
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code key} is {@code null}
     */
    public int rank(Key key) {
        if (key == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("argument to rank() is null");
        return rank(key, root);
    } 

    // Number of keys in the subtree less than key.
    private int rank(Key key, Node x) {
        if (x == null) return 0; 
        int cmp = key.compareTo(x.key); 
        if      (cmp < 0) return rank(key, x.left); 
        else if (cmp > 0) return 1 + size(x.left) + rank(key, x.right); 
        else              return size(x.left); 
    } 

    /**
     * Returns all keys in the symbol table as an {@code Iterable}.
     * To iterate over all of the keys in the symbol table named {@code st},
     * use the foreach notation: {@code for (Key key : st.keys())}.
     *
     * @return all keys in the symbol table
     */
    public Iterable<Key> keys() {
        return keys(min(), max());
    }

    /**
     * Returns all keys in the symbol table in the given range,
     * as an {@code Iterable}.
     *
     * @param  lo minimum endpoint
     * @param  hi maximum endpoint
     * @return all keys in the symbol table between {@code lo} 
     *         (inclusive) and {@code hi} (inclusive)
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if either {@code lo} or {@code hi}
     *         is {@code null}
     */
    public Iterable<Key> keys(Key lo, Key hi) {
        if (lo == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("first argument to keys() is null");
        if (hi == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("second argument to keys() is null");

        Queue<Key> queue = new Queue<Key>();
        keys(root, queue, lo, hi);
        return queue;
    } 

    private void keys(Node x, Queue<Key> queue, Key lo, Key hi) { 
        if (x == null) return; 
        int cmplo = lo.compareTo(x.key); 
        int cmphi = hi.compareTo(x.key); 
        if (cmplo < 0) keys(x.left, queue, lo, hi); 
        if (cmplo <= 0 && cmphi >= 0) queue.enqueue(x.key); 
        if (cmphi > 0) keys(x.right, queue, lo, hi); 
    } 

    /**
     * Returns the number of keys in the symbol table in the given range.
     *
     * @param  lo minimum endpoint
     * @param  hi maximum endpoint
     * @return the number of keys in the symbol table between {@code lo} 
     *         (inclusive) and {@code hi} (inclusive)
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if either {@code lo} or {@code hi}
     *         is {@code null}
     */
    public int size(Key lo, Key hi) {
        if (lo == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("first argument to size() is null");
        if (hi == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("second argument to size() is null");

        if (lo.compareTo(hi) > 0) return 0;
        if (contains(hi)) return rank(hi) - rank(lo) + 1;
        else              return rank(hi) - rank(lo);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the height of the BST (for debugging).
     *
     * @return the height of the BST (a 1-node tree has height 0)
     */
    public int height() {
        return height(root);
    }
    private int height(Node x) {
        if (x == null) return -1;
        return 1 + Math.max(height(x.left), height(x.right));
    }

    /**
     * Returns the keys in the BST in level order (for debugging).
     *
     * @return the keys in the BST in level order traversal
     */
    public Iterable<Key> levelOrder() {
        Queue<Key> keys = new Queue<Key>();
        Queue<Node> queue = new Queue<Node>();
        queue.enqueue(root);
        while (!queue.isEmpty()) {
            Node x = queue.dequeue();
            if (x == null) continue;
            keys.enqueue(x.key);
            queue.enqueue(x.left);
            queue.enqueue(x.right);
        }
        return keys;
    }

  /*************************************************************************
    *  Check integrity of BST data structure.
    ***************************************************************************/
    private boolean check() {
        if (!isBST())            StdOut.println("Not in symmetric order");
        if (!isSizeConsistent()) StdOut.println("Subtree counts not consistent");
        if (!isRankConsistent()) StdOut.println("Ranks not consistent");
        return isBST() && isSizeConsistent() && isRankConsistent();
    }

    // does this binary tree satisfy symmetric order?
    // Note: this test also ensures that data structure is a binary tree since order is strict
    private boolean isBST() {
        return isBST(root, null, null);
    }

    // is the tree rooted at x a BST with all keys strictly between min and max
    // (if min or max is null, treat as empty constraint)
    // Credit: Bob Dondero's elegant solution
    private boolean isBST(Node x, Key min, Key max) {
        if (x == null) return true;
        if (min != null && x.key.compareTo(min) <= 0) return false;
        if (max != null && x.key.compareTo(max) >= 0) return false;
        return isBST(x.left, min, x.key) && isBST(x.right, x.key, max);
    } 

    // are the size fields correct?
    private boolean isSizeConsistent() { return isSizeConsistent(root); }
    private boolean isSizeConsistent(Node x) {
        if (x == null) return true;
        if (x.size != size(x.left) + size(x.right) + 1) return false;
        return isSizeConsistent(x.left) && isSizeConsistent(x.right);
    } 

    // check that ranks are consistent
    private boolean isRankConsistent() {
        for (int i = 0; i < size(); i++)
            if (i != rank(select(i))) return false;
        for (Key key : keys())
            if (key.compareTo(select(rank(key))) != 0) return false;
        return true;
    }


    /**
     * Unit tests the {@code BST} data type.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) { 
        BST<String, Integer> st = new BST<String, Integer>();
        for (int i = 0; !StdIn.isEmpty(); i++) {
            String key = StdIn.readString();
            st.put(key, i);
        }

        for (String s : st.levelOrder())
            StdOut.println(s + " " + st.get(s));

        StdOut.println();

        for (String s : st.keys())
            StdOut.println(s + " " + st.get(s));
    }
}


Copyright © 2000–2016, Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne.
Last updated: Wed Nov 2 05:25:21 EDT 2016.